Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Gun Control: The Battle Rages On Abstract This paper discusses and is centered around the on-going debate over gun control, I directly address how each major political party views this subject and what I believe the United States Government should do to be able to best combat this tremendous issue. I use research from multiple sources that contrast each side of the argument and give an overall insight into the world of modernized gun control. Gun Control: The Battle Rages On With the Second Amendment giving American citizens the rights to bear arms, and approximately fifty percent of Americans owning some form of a firearm, issues involving the ownership and possession of guns have led to heated debates in American society. MostÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They take the term in an individual sense, therefore giving the individual the right to own and possess arms (Maguire, 1994, p. 58). The new laws and regulations being advocated by pro-gun controllers give those in opposition the feeling that their rights involving guns are slowly being taken away, and worry how far it will go. Having stated all of this information, it is imperative to choose what side of the gun control fence you stand on. Are you for gun control, or against it? A lot of the time people decide hastily without looking at both sides of the argument, or doing their own individual research before coming to a logical conclusion. When it comes to discussing how each major political party views this topic, it is often times easy to determine what position you defend or take on the issue because of the party you typically side with. The Democrats for instance often coincide with pro-gun control which not only favors strengthening gun control to reduce violence but also to reauthorize an assault weapons ban and close the gun show loophole that has been prevalent, especially in recent memory. The Republicans on the other hand are considered to tend to be more anti-gun control because of their policy on being able to obtain and store ammunition without registration, they also do not favor frivolous gun lawsuits and no federal gun licensing. What I believe the US Government should do about this issue is to incorporateShow MoreRelatedGun Control766 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGun Control Paper Gun Control has been an issue that has been brought to the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes in recent years. This main issue has been going on for many years, for example when John F. Kennedy was assassinated; it raised public awareness to the lack of control on sales and also possession of guns in America. Until 1968 guns were available over the counter in stores and through mail catalogs to just about any adult in America. This was an example of how loosely guns were regulated which bring usRead MoreGun Violence And Gun Control1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesshootings and various other methods of gun violence, tens of thousands of people die every year. These gun-related deaths primarily originate from murder and children accidentally shooting themselves. Although those in favor of gun control tend to believe that guns should be terminated completely, the second amendment prevents lawmakers from being able to do so. Therefore, in order to combat these causes, alternative gun control solutions mu st be made for each one. Gun-related murders can be decreasedRead MoreThe Gun Laws And Gun Control965 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesoriginate from the accessibility of guns, but rather the actions of an individual that has disregard for life in today s society. There will always be ways for the offender commit crimes with or without guns. What is being done about gun control? We have all heard of all the tragedies throughout the country regarding guns. According to the President (2013) We know that we cannot stop every act of violence with guns, but what if we tried to stop even one? Weapon controls in the U.S. is structured atRead MoreGun Control For Gun Violence880 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn 2015, 13,367 people lost their lives due to gun violence according to Gun Violence Archive. The Archive also states that out of that number, 693 were children from ages 0-11. We can all agree that there is indeed a problem that we have to address. The solution to that problem, however, has been debated by many. I believe the solution to this problem exists in three parts: Mandatory training and licensing along with more heavily secure gun storage, stricter regulations on the purchasing of a firearmÃ¢â¬âdisabilitiesRead MoreGuns And Their Effect On Gun Control962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGuns and the ability to use them have been under attack in the United States and many other places throughout the World. There are groups of people that believe that as long as we have the right to bear arms that many unprotected people will lose their lives due to gun violence. There are many trends that come with gun violence and where these mass shooting occur, but a main one is that when a place legally prohibits carrying a weapon then that is where the most gun violence happens. Where guns areRead MoreGuns And Gun Control855 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe rise in cases of gun violence and related incidences of assault has drawn the public to the issue of guns and gun control. Such has been evident within the spheres of politics especially with the last election period seeing the incumbent president Donald Trump suggesting on stringent gun control laws. However, despite the acknowledgment of the need to have better gun laws, much ground and consensus has never reached. Such, to an extent, contributed to the current lack of political goodwill withinRead MoreThe I ssue Of Gun Control Essay868 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Gun Control Gun Control. Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection. Detroit: Gale, 2016. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 30 Apr. 2016. In this website, it discusses the debatable topic of gun control. In the article titled Gun Control, it states that the Ã¢â¬Å"The United States is the leader in per-capita gun deaths among industrial nations.Ã¢â¬ The main point of this article was to get the point across about the controversy that this has brought into the United States, not only does it quote influentialRead More Gun Control Essay1065 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Gun Control Throughout America there is the constant debate concerning the second amendment or the right to bare arms. One day an innocent kid walking home from school gets shot in a drive by shooting is he just a victim of circumstance or could this of been easily prevented. There are lobbyist for the private ownership of guns and lobbyist for legislation to ban personal possession of guns for good. In this paper I hope that just maybe I can persuade you to think differently on a topic thatÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Assault Of Gun Control920 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGun control has become a hot topic in the United States as of now. There will be those who are for guns and those who are against guns. Those who are for guns, assert that it is our right to bear arms according to the 2nd amendment and those who are against guns, believe that guns are unnecessary and cause more violence. Assault weapons, in particular, have caused too many deaths and the government needs to put a ban on assault weapons. First and foremost, assault weapons have claimed the livesRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control Essay982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGuns have become a serious issue in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. There have been incalculable incidents that involved a gun causing physical harm to a person. This can occur when guns are not properly stored in a safe location. House Bill 75 has been proposed to help solve this problem. With this bill set in place, if a minor has the ability to access a firearm unauthorized, the person responsible for that firearm will receive criminal penalties. As a matter of a fact, there have been cases reported about
Monday, May 18, 2020
The Nutcracker: Live On the 26th of November, 2016, I had the wonderful opportunity to witness the Colorado Ballet Orchestra perform the nutcracker live. The concert was at the Ellie Caulkins Opera House, and the phenomenal symphony was led by Adam Flatt. This was my first ever classical concert as well as concert, and I was not disappointed. The performance was wonderful, and the opera house was beautiful. The Nutcracker performance was one hour and fifty minutes long, therefore, in this essay, I plan to pick out the points that stood out. To begin this essay, I am going to summarize the story behind the nutcracker. Next, I will analyze the two most notable and my personal favorite parts of the performance. Those parts were the battle scene and the Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy. Finally, I will summarize the melody of the music throughout, and the general feel of the entire performance. Summary of Story The nutcracker is a classic Christmas story that originated in Russia set to music by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and brought to life with the art of ballet by E.T.A. Hoffmann.Since then, the story has taken many different variations, titles, and adaptations to suit its viewers while retaining its original composition and meaning. The story is mainly about a little girl named Clara. In the story, her godfather Drosselmeyer comes to their house for Christmas. Clara and her junior brother, Fritz, really love their godfather, because every
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
With many different religious, ethnic, and social groups, the Republic of India is a unique and diverse state. Since gaining independence, India has faced a challenge of encouraging the variegated people within its borders to embrace and celebrate a common Indian identity even while nurturing their distinct cultures and traditions. This diversity is reflected throughout social and political challenges in Indian society. Although the different federal states are given a certain amount of leeway to accommodate for the populationÃ¢â¬â¢s heterogeneity, the central government maintain a great amount of power for purpose of holding the nation together. As India has developed, one of its focusesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In general, however, the Indian government still maintains a great amount of control over the electricity sector. Its centralized control over the sector remains largely intact and is directly accountable by the government to the people, thus indicative of a responsib le government. With an annual population growth of 1.3 percent (United Nations 2013), IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s energy needs are growing, especially in regards to electricity. Because new energy gains require multiples of power use, for the Indian economy to expand, electricity production has to rise more rapidly than total output. Thus far, areas of India remain in the dark: the Ã¢â¬Å"rise of 122 percent in [electric] generation [has been] insufficient for continued expansionÃ¢â¬ (DeVotta, 138). Still, the electricity sector has grown substantially since independence. Installed capacity in 1950 was 1,713 megawatts; by 2002 it had grown to 104,918 megawatts (Kale 2004). However, per capita annual electricity consumption, which increased from approximately 13 kilowatt-hours in 1951 to 365 kilowatt-hours in 2001, remains low. At the federal level, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s government has initiated a major policy initiative to make electricity generation and supply commercially viable. As part of the 20 01 Energy Conservation Act, the government outlined an ambitious plan for achieving 100 percent village-level electrification by the end of 2007 and total householdShow MoreRelatedAn Investigative Study About Deregulation ( Restructuring ) Of Indian Power Sector2061 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesby introducing restructuring and deregulation in electrical power sector. Deregulation involves unbundling of different components of power system, availability of components for sale and also forming new set of rules for operation and sales of electricity . An main and important aspect of deregulation is restructuring. Restructuring means unbundling of power system into both horizontal and vertical components. Vertical integrated utilities are mainly broken up into three main components, i.e.Read MorePower Distribution Reforms in India Ã¢â¬â a Journey from Monopoly Towards Competition.2032 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesPower Distribution Reforms in India Ã¢â¬â A journey from Monopoly towards Competition. Case Objective: Power a basic human need is the critical infrastructure on which modern economic activity is fully dependent. Only 55% households in India have access to Electricity. Most of those who have access do not get uninterrupted reliable supply. In this era of globalization, it is essential that electricity of good qualities is provided at reasonable rates for economic activity so that competitiveness increasesRead MorePower Distribution Reforms in India Ã¢â¬â a Journey from Monopoly Towards Competition.2020 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesPower Distribution Reforms in India Ã¢â¬â A journey from Monopoly towards Competition. Case Objective: Power a basic human need is the critical infrastructure on which modern economic activity is fully dependent. Only 55% households in India have access to Electricity. Most of those who have access do not get uninterrupted reliable supply. In this era of globalization, it is essential that electricity of good qualities is provided at reasonable rates for economic activity so that competitiveness increasesRead MoreThe Economic Growth Of India Essay1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction India has experienced lopsided growth across its major sectors especially after the reform process have been initiated in the early 1990s. Studies show that if the pre-reform period is compared with the post-reform period, economic growth has definitely picked up in India. Given the structure of the economy and the state of human capital availability reforms have led to the increase in share of the services sector at the expense of industrial and agricultural sectors. On the other handRead MoreIndi The Next Economic Superpower1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbelieve India is going to be the next economic superpower because of many different factors but not without change to traditional practices. Macroeconomics is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole, rather than individual markets. Macroeconomics simplifies the analysis of how the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s total production and level of employment are related to attrib utes including national, regional, and global economies. India being theRead MoreHistory of Electricity in Kerala - Dr D Shina12889 Words Ã |Ã 52 PagesHISTORY OF ELECTRICITY IN KERALA Ã¢â¬â Dr D Shina S N COLLEGE, Kollam, Kerala, India email - firstname.lastname@example.org ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF ELECTRICITY The history of electricity can be traced back to the eighteenth century. The first instance of sensing the phenomenon of electricity was the accidental observation of what was later found out to be neon glow by Framas Bauksbw in 1709 at the Royal Society in London. Luigi Galvani observed moving of the legs of a dead frog when touched with a metal scalpelRead Moreindustrial relations systems in India1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOutlining the formal industrial relations systems in India and comparing it to Australian industrial relations systems. Describing the views on how appropriate Indian industrial system is for modern industry and commerce. Executive summary: The determination of this report is to compare the industrial relationship system of India and Australia. The assessments provided here describes how appropriate Indian system is for modern industry and commerce. The conclusions gives a clear view of IndustrialRead MoreIndia s Electricity Crisis From Uttar Pradesh State1818 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages ELECTRICITY CRISIS IN INDIA (UTTAR PRADESH STATE) Name: Zhaomengqi Wang Instructor: Anshul Rana Course: SA. 790.722: Infrastructure and Development in South Asia Date : Nov 11 2016 Words:1460 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introduction Uttar Pradesh State in India has been a severe victim of electricity shortages for several years . Data from the Central Electricity Authority indicates that by May 2015, Uttar PradeshÃ¢â¬â¢s power availability was around 11.6% less than maximum demand, compared to IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s power shortage ofRead MoreCritical Analysis of New Indian Economic Policy5290 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesINTRODUCTION TO INDIAN ECONOMY The economy of India as per the GDP is the eleventh largest economy in the world and by purchasing power parity the fourth largest. Following strong economic reforms from the socialist inspired economy of Indian nation before the time of independence, the country began to develop a fast-paced economic growth, as free market principles were initiated in 1990 for international competition and foreign investment. India is an emerging economic power with a very largeRead MoreSummer Training Report on Delhi Transco Limited7876 Words Ã |Ã 32 PagesIntroduction Electricity plays a vital role in our day-to-day life.Ã It powers our houses, industries, hospitals and in fact our entire economy.Ã ElectricityÃ (from theÃ New LatinÃ Ãâlectricus, amber-like) is a general term that encompasses a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow ofÃ electric charge. When we consider electricity, we usually think of electric power, and thats how well use the term here. Electricity is energy, and energy can do work. Electric power, electricity, is used
Seconds gave birth to minutes and minutes to hours, yet my concentration remained resolute. Despite the daunting nature of the task, I remained determined in what I had to achieve. For the first time applying some rudimentary scientific ideas I managed to build an intricate model of a toy car. Ã¢â¬Å"You shall grow up to become an Engineer one day,Ã¢â¬ my father exclaimed gazing at my laudable piece of creativity. I was only eleven and yet those prophetic words unknowingly chartered my future course for me. There are no engineers in my family to persuade me into becoming one. It was my own interest and curiosity that drove me into analyzing how things work. Over the years I have developed a passion for solving complex problems that involve technical challenges. I have learnt that an engineering problem does not have a standard solution to it and that an engineer has to choose the best from amongst the various options. The process of applying scientific methods to solve real-life problems continued to intrigue me throughout my years of study, initially in the context of my own behavior, and later to observe and investigate its impact on an increasing affinity towards Engineering. When I was twelve, I went on a school trip to apipe factory in Lahore. I was fascinated by the way pipes were being subjected to hydrostatic pressure tests to check the weld strength and flattening and bend tests to maintain strict quality control. Overwhelmed by the involvement of Physics and Math inShow MoreRelatedWhat Is A Civil Engineer?1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstadium, like the Astrodome. As I began researching further into a career in civil engineering, I found that it is a very interesting, yet rewarding career. However, there are numerous barriers that a person interested in this career must overcome in order to be successful due to the huge responsibilities involved. In this essay I will discuss the path a person must take if they are considering a career in civil engineering and what to expect along the way. Professionals in this career field must beingRead MoreRsytvboub7277 Words Ã |Ã 30 Pagesopportunities for improvement that may considerably advance UMS practices. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE) IS.1943-555X.0000269. Ã © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers. Author keywords: Utility relocation; Utility management systems (UMSs); Subsurface utility engineering (SUE). Introduction Issues related to utilities are one of the major causes of construction delays in roadway construction projects and can cause significant cost increases (Lees and Scott 2002; Kraus et al. 2013b). Public agencies routinelyRead MoreThe Infinite Stupidity of Humans and the Universe Essay2754 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesits significance using computers. Calculate orbits and determine sizes, shapes, brightness, and motions of different celestial object bodies. Collaborate with other astronomers to carry out research projects. Develop and modify astronomy related programs for public presentation. Develop instrumentation and software for astronomical observation and analysis. Develop theories based on personal observations or on observations and theories of astronomers. Direct the operations of a planetarium and measureRead MoreProject Managment Case Studies214937 Words Ã |Ã 860 PagesPrinted in the United States of America Contents Preface xi 1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGIES 1 Lakes Automotive 3 Fems Healthcare, Inc. Clark Faucet Company 2 5 7 11 IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT Kombs Engineering 13 Williams Machine Tool Company 15 Wynn Computer Equipment (WCE) 17 The Reluctant Workers 20 Hyten Corporation 22 Macon, Inc. 35 Continental Computer Corporation 37 Goshe Corporation 43 Acorn Industries 49 MIS Project Management at First NationalRead MoreSolution Manual, Test Bank and Instructor Manuals34836 Words Ã |Ã 140 PagesGeorge S. Kriz, Gary M. Lampman, Randall G. Engel (IM) A People and a Nation A History of the United States, Brief Edition, Volume I, 9th Edition_Mary Beth Norton, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, Howard P. Chudacoff, A People and a Nation A History of the United States, Volume II Since 1865, 9th Edition_Mary Beth Norton, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, Howard P. Chudacoff, Fredrik A Small Scale Approach to Organic Laboratory Techniques, 3rd Edition _Donald L. Pavia, Gary M. Lampman, George S.Read MoreFactors Affecting the Decision of Graduating High School Students in Choosing a College Course8091 Words Ã |Ã 33 Pagescan influence a student when choosing a career path. A similar conclusion is also seen in Lee and Chatfields (2012) study which looks at the advertising effect of a certain college choice. Results of their study showed that media such as TV programs, soap operas, and news significantly influenced international students in applying a college course in the United States. 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Question: Discuss About The Pmtimes Resources For The Project Managers? Answer: Introduction One of the key qualities that a sound management should have is the ability to assess the risks involved in the organization. Procuring of the necessary inputs in the organization is another vital part of the business operations. Organizations and individuals develop projects that are aimed at enhancing the growth of the business. Every project needs inputs that are procured from suppliers or other sources. Developed projects have potential risks associated with them. Project risks should be assessed at the project formulation stage and methods of dealing with the risks should be drafted. Mismanagement of procurement could also contribute to the failure of the developed project. Project risk and procurement management have a linear relationship in the logic that if procurement management is poor, the projects risk of failure increases and when the procurement management is good, the chance of project success is high. There different aspects of project risk and procurement management and their impacts on organizations activities. The article will evaluate the impact of project risk and procurement management on businesses and business activities. Project risk A project risk can be defined as an uncertain event that if it occurs, has either a positive or negative impact on one or more project objectives. Project risk affects the set objectives that the project was purposed to achieve. No project is risk-free and for this reason, risk management plans are placed in place to ensure that if the risks occur, there are means to deal with them and reduce the impact they have on the project. Project risk involves risks that are known and other risks that are unknown. Some of the risks that are known include; safety risks in construction, change in local currency which affects the purchasing power of the money in the project, and bad weather that affect projects that depend on good weather. Lack of commitment from stakeholders and the executive is usually the first cause of risk occurrence. Incompetent management and inefficient resources also lead to project risk occurring. Some of the major causes of project risk include; Poor preparation- lack of a clear picture of how the success of the project will look like, lack of proper allocation of resources, and delay in project initiation leads to project risk. Preparation is a crucial stage of a project and failure of adequate preparation leads to a high probability of risk occurrence. Poor leadership- every management level has a role to play to contribute to the success of the business. Lack of support from the management leads to the delay of arrivals of inputs as well as delays in payments of the workers which causes the project to halt and takes more time than initially intended. Inexperienced project managers- project managers are responsible for driving the project forward and ensuring that the expectations of the stakeholders are achieved. Roles of the project manager involve assigning people to the correct duties that match their skills and experience, ensuring that the project is on track regarding the time frame, and ensuring that all resources involved in the project are utilized accordingly to avoid wastage. A project manager who cannot carry out the required duties leads to several project risks and the eventual failure of the project. Inaccurate cost estimates- incorrect estimates of inputs that will be involved in the project often increase the probability of project risk. Inaccurate estimates lead to purchase of few resources which run out during the implementation of the project causing the project to halt. Poor communication- lack of proper communication at different levels o management hinders the flow of vital information. Poor communication leads to unsolved issues that hinder the progress of the project. The workers should be able to talk to their seniors about any concerns they have, and the management should communicate any information regarding the project promptly to avoid delays. There are also positive risks which affect the project. Most of the positive risks are taken as opportunities for the business are mainly due overestimation of the required resources and cost of the project Project risk management Project risk is inevitable in any project. Project management serves to ensure that the risks are maintained at a minimal level. Project managers have to identify the risks that may arise during the project in developing strategies to handle the risks. Project management ensures that the risks have minimum effect on the success of the project. Risk management involves four steps which help in the control of the risk. These steps include; Identification of risk- the first step is identifying the risks that have a possibility of occurring. Risk identification is important in project planning because strategies of dealing with the risks are put in place in the early stages of the project. Some of the notable risks are supplier risk, resource risk, and budget risk. The resource risk affects the project when there is inadequate human capital or the available human resource is not skilled enough. The budget risk affects the project when the cost of the project is more than what was anticipated. Risk quantification- quantification of risk involves analyzing the likelihood of the occurrence of the risk. The risks that have a high chance of occurrence and could have a big impact on the process are addressed first. The risks are quantified in four levels: low, medium, high and critical. Critical risks can affect the project by a high magnitude and can even cause the failure of the project. Risk response- the project managers are charged with the duty to determine the best way to deal with the possible risk. Risk response involves the implementation of strategies that are I place to keep the effects of the risk at minimum levels. Project risks are divided into positive and negative risks. Due to this reason, the project managers have to choose the strategies that will best handle the risk. The strategies may involve handling risks that can be avoided, ignoring the risk, especially the positive risks, correcting the risk, and accepting the risk. Monitoring and controlling risk- after the risk is identified and dealt with, the project manager has to monitor the occurrence of the risk again and identify new risks. The risk is controlled to keep the effects down. Mechanisms are laid out to monitor and assess the risk as well as another emerging risk, monitoring and controlling of the project risk ensures the uninterrupted progress of the project. Some of the characteristics of a good project risk management include; Prioritizing the risk- a sound risk management prioritizes the risk in the project. The risk managers gather to draft strategies to mitigate the risks and strategies of the risks that may arise. The critical risks are given first priority and are addressed earlier in the project. Integrity- a good risk management team has to be independent and operate separately from the project team. Independence of the team will ensure that the management will do as it sees fit on dealing with the risks. High data quality- data is essential in solving of risks. A sound risk management should have quality and accurate data to enable effectiveness when dealing with the project risk. Data enables data analysis and ultimately enables formulation of effective strategies for dealing with the project risk Use of the appropriate management tools- a major characteristic of a sound risk management is the use of the right tools. The right management tools range from SWOT analysis to the use of the right computer software such as Excel, to more quantitative tools of risk analysis such as decision tree model. The appropriate management tools make it possible for the management to fully analyze the data and come up with conclusive findings which aid in the formulation of risk strategies. Benchmarking culture- a good risk management is willing to embrace and apply practices from other organizations. Sound management compares its risk management process to the processes of other successful and organized organization to learn and adopt the useful concept. The risk management also invites external experts to benchmark on the applied risk management process and give their opinion and critic. Mature risk management engages in dialogues on professional platforms and forums to exchange ideas on risk management processes. Follow up- a good risk management includes the findings of the risk analysis in the agendas of the organization and ensures that follow up actions are taken. The findings of the analysis are used by the organization in the future to make difficult decisions. Follow up actions are important to determine the effectiveness of the applied strategy in mitigating the risk. Risk management generally involves identifying, analyzing, and mitigating risks that can affect the project. Risk management consists of the outlined action plan that leads to the elimination of risk that exists in the projects. The risk management techniques employed are dependent on the nature of the project. Benefits of a sound risk management include Avoids big problems that could lead to failure of the project Enhances the project's revenue by saving on the expenses that would have consumed much money due to the risk Increases the sense of responsibility and accountability in the project managers Helps the organization focus on the opportunities rather than the risks Enables completion of the project on time thus giving the business a competitive advantage over the other firms. Overall, in the planning process of the project, project risk should be considered. The management and all the stakeholders of the project should formulate strategies to deal with the risk. Proper planning ensures that the obvious risks such as labor shortage and inadequate budgeting are avoided. The risk management is left to deal with other challenges that may arise rather than the risk that comes about due to ignorance in the planning process. The risk management team should be involved in the planning of the project to implementation and completion of the task. A sound risk management should pose the qualities discussed in the report. Risk management is a fundamental determinant of the success or failure of a project. An organization with mature risk management ensure that data analysis is carried in an efficient manner so as to obtain accurate data which is crucial to strategy formulation. Procurement Management Procurement is an essential aspect of any business or institution. Organizations have to purchase certain inputs that are vital to the functioning of the organization. The procurement process involves a chain of processes that enable the movement of the necessary resources from the sellers to the organization. Procurement involves the selection of sellers, determining the payment plans, vetting of the suppliers, negotiation of the business contracts and making the actual purchase. Procurement takes into account all the factors involved during a trade; delivery, marginal benefit, inflation levels and price fluctuations. Procurement is split into two categories; Direct spend-direct spend involves procurement of all goods that are finished products such as finished components. Direct spend influences manufacturing since the factories depend on raw materials. Indirect procurement- the procurement of inputs that do not relate to production is classified under indirect procurement. Indirect spend involves the acquisition of a wide range of products such as office utensils, machines, machine spare parts, lubricants, tables, and desks. Procurement is viewed as a tactical means of acquiring goods and services compared to a simple purchase. Procurement can be defined as the acquisition of services, goods, and work from external sources. Procurement ensures that the business activities run smoothly throughout the trading period. The procurement process involves a series of activities that are integrated to serve a single purpose of acquiring different goods from different external suppliers. A system is laid down for the procurement process to flow smoothly. The system is run and managed by the procurement management. Procurement management is the work process of monitoring, controlling and managing the procurement activities. Procurement management controls the acquisition activities through four steps; Planning-the first stage involves identification of the important aspects and requirements. Planning involves identification of the potential vendors, the costs that the process will incur, the quantities and description of the items to be acquired, and the time frame required for the items to arrive. Plan execution- the second step is to put the plan into action. The execution of the plan involves vetting the potential vendors and settling on the ones that are most appealing. The vendors are contacted and requested to submit their proposals for the requested transactions. The plan execution has to be in line with the set objectives. The prices of the intended goods should be determined and compared with the previous invoices to determine the necessary changes. The final stage of the plan execution step is making the actual purchase. Control and monitor the procurement- after the purchase is made, the procurement management ensures that what was ordered is what is brought to the organization. Any changes that are necessary are handled at this stage. The procurement managers have the duty to ensure that the relationship between the supplier and the organization is maintained for a steady flow of the procured products. All the necessary documents are filled for future reference. Delivery and handling of the items are monitored to ensure that nothing is damaged. Finalizing the process-the final steps involve closing the procurement process. After the procurement management is satisfied with the items and approves all of them, the procurement process is closed The procurement management plan is set to guide the whole procurement team on what to do. Failure to adhere to the plan leads to consequences which include; Procurement risk- the procurement management plan serves to solve the problem of transparency in the acquisition process. The procurement process is subject to risk due to the purchasing activities of the team members. The plan involves strategic plans in place for avoiding risks of transparency and supply risk. Failure to abide by the plan leads occurrence of the risks that will translate to other departments of the institution. Inconsistency the procurement plan ensures that the procurement practices are as per the requirements. Failure by the procurement team to follow the procurement plan will cause inconsistency in procurement activities which will cause the institution additional costs in order for new equipment. Inconsistency cause frustration among the stakeholders who become confused on what to expect. Knowledge gaps- the procurement management plan ensures that information flows to every team member letting everyone know of any changes and the expectations of everyone in the team. When the plan is not followed by every team member, some of the workers will try and carry out the procurement activities by their own personal means. Such practices will lead to breakage of information and the process becomes distorted as the workers are working individually instead of working as a unit. The lack of clear direction by the workers leads to confusion within the department and many errors are made which lead to more money being spent to compensate for the bad acquisition Procurement management and project risk The procurement management in any organization influences and affects the projects in the organization. Project risk is partially dependent on the procurement management. Every project depends on the acquisition of the resources necessary to proceed with the project. A sound procurement management ensures that the inputs required for the project arrive on time and are of the right standards. The procurement management is the determinant of how smooth the project will progress. The procurement plan should be set to ensure that the projects requirements are always available at the time of need. A bad procurement management leads to the acquisition of the wrong inputs either in quality or quantity. The wrong inputs cannot be used in the project causing the task to stop as new orders are made and the wrong ones returned. Lack of monitoring by the procurement management leads to damage of the resources acquired which in turns slows down the project as the equipment is repaired. Failure of the procurement management leads to additional cos on the project which adds to the project risk, When the procurement management is good and the team is properly coordinated, the project risk reduction, and it enhances time-saving which also translates to savings in capital when the project is finished before the set time frame. A sound management maintains a good relationship with the suppliers in a manner that the suppliers can willingly supply to the organization the required inputs on credit or on emergency cases. Supplier risk, quality risk, shortage risk and time risk can be avoided by an efficient procurement management. Conclusion In general, every project in any organization is subject to project risk. Proper strategies should be put in place to deal with and avoid the project risk. Risks that are obvious to the stakeholders and the management should be eliminated in the planning process so that the project manager should be left with the risks that may emerge during the project. Project risk involves any occurrence that that may have either a positive or negative impact on the objectives of the plan. There is a need for proper communication during the implementation of every stage of the project. Proper planning is also vital to the mitigation of project risk. Procurement management also plays a role in determining the fate of the project. A sound procurement management will ensure that the projects required inputs are always available and are in the right quantity and of the right quality. References Chadwick, Deene. "commonsensical project Risk Definition." PMtimes Resources for project managers. september 11, 2013. https://www.projecttimes.com/articles/commonsensical-project-risk-defination.html (accessed October 10, 2017). Dalkin, John. "DEFINITION-WHAT IS PROCUREMENT?" CAPITAL . july 10, 2014. https://www.capital.uk.com/2014/07/defination-procurement/ (accessed October 10, 2017). Mar, Anna. "management-project management-project risk-project risks (list)." simplicable. june 28, 2016. htpps://management.simplicable.com/management/news/130-project-risks (accessed October 10, 2017).s the PD. "procurement management." THE PROJECT DEFINITION. DECEMBER 14, 2015. https://the projectdefination.com/procurement-management/ (accessed OCTOBER 10, 2017).
Language Acquisition What is Second Language Acquisition? In second language learning, language plays an institutional and social role in the community. It functions as a recognized means of communication among members who speak some other language as their native tongue. In foreign language learning, language plays no major role in the community and is primarily learned in the classroom. The distinction between second and foreign language learning is what is learned and how it is learned. Slide 2: Learning a second language requires: 1. formal language instruction in an academic setting; 2. nteractions with the second language outside of the classroom; 3. pedagogical practices, strategies and methodologies which facilitate second language learning (how); and 4. teaching the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing along with comprehension and thinking (what). Slide 3: The study of second language acquisition involves: 1. how second languages are learned ( the proc ess); 2. how learners create a new language system with limited exposure (interactions); 3. language proficiency levels (competence and performance of the language); and 4. hy some learners achieve native-like proficiency. How Do Learners Acquire a Second Language? Learners acquire a second language by making use of existing knowledge of the native language, general learning strategies, or universal properties of language to internalize knowledge of the second language. These processes serve as a means by which the learner constructs an interlanguage (a transitional system reflecting the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s current L2 knowledge). Communication strategies are employed by the learner to make use of existing knowledge to cope with communication difficulties. Slide 4: Learners acquire a second language by drawing on their background experiences and prior knowledge in their first language. They experiment with the second language by using features found in their first language which are similar to those in the second language. This dependence on the first language serves to help the learner construct an interlanguage, a transitional system consisting of the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s current second language knowledge. Communication strategies help the learners use what they already know to overcome breakdowns in communication. Slide 5: Individual differences affect second language acquisition. These differences may be developmental, cognitive, affective or social. There are factors that are fixed which we cannot control such as age and language learning aptitude. There are some variable factors such as motivation which are controlled by social setting and the course taken for developing the second language. Teachers need to know that variable factors are controlled through the learning environment, by knowing their studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ cognitive styles, their learning preferences, how they teach, and what they teach. Slide 6: There are many different types of learner strategies which teachers need to be aware of in order to understand the strategies children bring with them and how they learn best. Language learners may need to be taught strategies for relating new knowledge to prior knowledge, for organizing information more effectively and for seeking opportunities for communicating with target language speakers. Slide 7: Researchers identified a natural order of strategies for developing a second language. The order of development starts with the very simple imitation of a word or language structure, to self-talk, to self-correcting, and to role-playing. An awareness of this natural order can help teachers of second language learners plan lessons to facilitate language learning and increase the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ self-esteem and self-confidence. Slide 8: There are several theories of second language acquisition which have provided information on how second languages are learned. The Universalists studied a wide-range of languages to find out how languages vary and what makes them vary. They looked at language patterns, language universals (features of language which are common across many languages) as well as other properties of language. Slide 9: Universalists also claimed that language is acquired through innateness (nature) and that certain conditions trigger the development of language (nurture). The search for meaning is innate. Activities and instructional materials need to be presented in a meaningful, relevant and interesting manner in order to allow students to make language learning connections. Slide 10: Behaviorists claimed that learners learn by undergoing training and practice through a series of stimulus and response chains and operant conditioning. The environment provides the stimulus and the learner provides the response. According to the Behaviorist theory, reinforcement motivates the formation of a language habit. Behaviorist Theory (Continued) Theory When the learner learns a language, this learning includes a set of stimulusresponse-reward (S-R-R) chains. Imitation provides the learner with a repertoire of appropriate, productive responses. The learner learns to imitate or approximate the productive responses provided by the environment. The characteristics of human and non-human learners include the ability to: 1. 2. 3. 4. respond to stimuli in a certain way; intuitively evaluate the reward potential of responses; extract the important parameters that made up the stimulus response (positive reward chains); and generalize these parameters to similar situations to form classes of S-R-R chains. Slide 11: Language learning requires effort and practice. Behaviorists further claimed that learners imitate or approximate productive responses. For instance, learning how to write is not universal across cultures because some cultures do not have a history of written language, therefore learning how to write involves a conscious effort and specific training, as well as a willingness to learn by trial and error. Responding to stimuli in this instance is critical in order for writing to take place. Slide 12: Nativists claimed that language learning is biologically determined. Each person is born with an innate ability to learn language. The basic innate language learning capacities are referred to as the Language Acquisition Device (LAD). This view asserts that the environment only serves to trigger the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) which determines what children acquire. Children acquire much of their language ability before coming to school, thus supporting the innate structures argument. Nativist Theory (Continued) 1. 2. 3. the ability to distinguish speech sounds from other sounds in the environment; Theory McNeill (1966) described the LAD as consisting of four innate linguistic properties: the ability to organize linguistic events into various classes that can be refined later; knowledge that only a certain kind of linguistic system is possible and that other kinds are not; and the ability to engage in constant evaluation of the developing linguistic system in order to construct the simplest possible system out of the linguistic data that are encountered. 4. Nativists have contributed to the discoveries of how the system of child language works. Theorists such as Chomsky, McNeill, and others helped us understand that a childÃ¢â¬â¢s language, at any given point, is a legitimate system in its own right. Slide 13: The Nativists also contend that learners actively construct grammar for themselves by actively listening to the language around them and trying to determine the patterns in the utterances. Learners progress through language in predictable stages. The learner will not respond to error correction if he/she is not developmentally ready. Slide 14: Cognitivists claimed that the conditions for learning language are the same conditions that are necessary for any kind of learning. They believed that human beings have the capacity for developing logical thinking. Acquiring knowledge is a cognitive process which involves automatic processing (rountinzed) and controlled (temporary) learning. Cognitivist Theory (Continued) Language Learning as a Cognitive Process 1. 2. Theory Learning a language involves internal representations that regulate and guide performance. Automatic processing activates certain nodes in memory when appropriate input is present. Activation is a learned response. Memory is a large collection of nodes. Controlled processing is not a learned response. It is a temporary activation of nodes in a sequence. Skills are learned and routinized only after the earlier use of controlled processes have been used. Learner strategies contain both declarative knowledge i. e. knowing the Ã¢â¬ËwhatÃ¢â¬â¢ of the language-internalized rules and memorized chunks of language, and procedural knowledge i. e. know the Ã¢â¬ËhowÃ¢â¬â¢ of the language system to employ strategies. 3. 4. 5. 6. Slide 15: The Cognitive theory underscores the fact that the learner brings an innate mental capacity to the learning task. He/she also brings perceptions of relationships between what he knows and what he/she needs to know. Learner strategies are used for learning the rules of a language and how to use the language for different audiences and purposes. Theories of Second Language Acquisition (Continued Social Interactionist Theory supports the view that the development of language comes from the early interactions between infants and caregivers. Social interactionists stress: Theory the importance of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions with parents and other caregivers; the importance of Ã¢â¬Å"mothereseÃ¢â¬ ; contributions of context and world knowledge; and the importance of goals Glew (1998) claims that learners have to be pushed in their negotiation of meaning to produce comprehensible output. The classroom context needs to provide adequate opportunities for target language use to allow learners to develop competence in the target language. Slide 16: Social interactionists believe that human language emerged from the social role that language plays in human interactions. They further believed that the environment plays a key role and that adults in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s linguistic environment are instrumental in language acquisition. Language learners need many opportunities for using the target language in order to develop competence. Slide 17: Social interaction is the key to language processing. Input from the social interactions provides a model for negotiation opportunities. Vygotsky (1978) believed that learners bring two levels of development to the learning: an actual developmental level and a potential developmental level. These two levels are referred to as the Zone of Proximal Development. Learners can move from actual development to proximal development through social interactions with others. Slide 18: Krashen proposed five hypotheses for second language acquisition. He explored the notion that acquisition is different from learning because one takes place in a natural environment while the other takes place in an academic setting. He further claimed that we learn language in a predictable order. Some language structures are learned earlier than others. The monitor is the self-correcting mechanism that learners use to edit what they say before they speak or write. The learner can overuse the monitor and stifle communication. Slide 19: Krashen proposed that when learners are provided with comprehensible input they acquire more. When the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s affective filter is up, this means that information is not reaching the learner. This may be because of fear, anxiety or low selfconfidence in language learning. The ideal situation is for the filter to be down so that the language acquisition device can receive the input necessary for language acquisition. CumminÃ¢â¬â¢s Second Language Framework Cummins makes a distinction between social language and academic language. 1. Social language refers to the everyday conversational language which is supported by the use of illustrations, realia, demonstrations, etc. Context Embedded). Studies show that language learners acquire social language in approximately two years. Social language deals with the here-and-now language, therefore second language learners tend to acquire it faster. 2. Academic language is the language of school tasks which is more abstract and decontextualized (Context Reduced). Some second language learners who develop fluent spoken English have difficulties in reading and writing because they may be at different levels of proficiency while they are moving from social language (BICS) to academic language (CALP). It takes between five to seven years for second language learners to acquire academic language. Slide 20: James Cummins developed a framework for second language acquisition that involves the identification of both social and academic languages. The basic interpersonal communication skills are acquired from everyday use of the language and are supported by cues in the environment (context-embedded). The cognitive academic language proficiency is more abstract language which is not supported by environmental cues (context-reduced). Slides 21-22: Context-embedded tasks are for the most part cognitively undemanding because learners are able to depend on cues for assistance. There are some tasks that are context-embedded, more complex and impose cognitive demands. The learners in these situations can still rely on environmental cues for help. Slides 23-24: Context-reduced tasks can be both cognitively undemanding and cognitively demanding as well. Cognitively undemanding tasks are simple to carry out but do not contain environmental cues i. e. reading for personal purposes. Cognitively demanding, context-reduced tasks are more abstract and decontextualized. Slides 25-26: The components of communicative competence include: 1) grammatical competence which is knowing the structure of the language; 2) sociolinguistic competence which involves the use of the language for different audiences, purposes and norms of communication; 3) discourse competence which includes combing and connecting utterances both spoken and written; and 4) strategic competence which involves using language to meet communication goals. Slide 27: Competence is the underlying knowledge which is the mental representation of linguistic rules. This knowledge is nonobservable because it is internal. Performance is the overtly observable production of competence (comprehension and production of language). Slide 28: The three general principles of language learning include: 1) the law of exercise-active and repeated responses to stimuli (practice); 2) the law of effect-reinforcing learner responses (providing immediate corrective feedback); and 3) the principle of shaping-learning language through learning chunks (bit-bybit). Slide 29: These principles operate under the assumption that language learning is the formation of habit. The learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s automatic responses were prompted by stimuli. Interesting and motivating stimuli turns responses into automatic, routinized learning. The level of difficulty required to learn a second language depends on the amount of time it takes to learn a second language pattern. The time from which controlled responses (short-term) turn into automatic responses (long-term) is dependent on learner differences, learning conditions, and teaching pedagogy. Input and Interaction L2 acquisition can only take place when the learner has access to input in the second language. This input may come in written or spoken form. Spoken input occurs in face-to-face interactions. Non-reciprocal discourse includes listening to the radio or watching a film. Behaviorists claim that presenting learners with input in the right doses and then reinforcing their attempts to practice them can control the process of acquisition. Chomsky pointed out that in many cases there was a very poor match between the kind of language found in the input that learners received and the kind of language they themselves produced. Comprehensible input (KrashenÃ¢â¬â¢s, 1985 Input Hypothesis) proposed that learners acquire morphological features in a natural order as a result of comprehending input addressed to them. Long (1981a) argued that input which is made comprehensible by means of the conversational adjustments that occur when there is a comprehension problem is especially important for acquisition. Swain (1985) proposed the comprehensible output hypothesis which states that learners need opportunities for Ã¢â¬Å"pushed outputÃ¢â¬ in speech or writing that makes demands on them for correct and appropriate use of the L2. Slide 30: Input and interaction are very important factors in second language acquisition. Second language acquisition can only take place when the learner has access to input in the target language. Teachers can provide comprehensible input in their instructional delivery coupled with opportunities for interactions. Adjustments are made in order to facilitate the comprehension of messages. Just as important is comprehensible output. Learners need to be given opportunities to produce spoken or written discourse which forces them to use correct and appropriate use of the second language. The Role of the Native Language in Second Language Acquisition Language Trans fer The role of native language in second language acquisition has come to be known as Ã¢â¬Å"language transfer. Ã¢â¬ It has been assumed that in a second language learning situation learners rely extensively on their native language. According to Lado (1957) individuals tend to transfer forms and meanings, the distribution of the forms and meanings of their native language and culture to the foreign language and culture. This transfer is productive when the learner attempts to speak the language. This transfer is receptive when the learner attempts to grasp and understand the language and culture as practiced by native speakers. LadoÃ¢â¬â¢s work and much of the work of that time (1950Ã¢â¬â¢s) was based on the need to produce pedagogically relevant materials. A contrastive analysis of the native language and the target language was conducted in order to determine similarities and differences in the languages. Slide 31: The first language has a distinct role in second language acquisition. When language learners have a strong linguistic and communicative foundation in their native language, then the process of second language acquisition involves language transfer. Learners transfer forms and meanings as they attempt to speak or write the second language. Transfer takes on a receptive role when the learners listen to native speakers of the language and try to understand what is being said. Similarities in the two languages are transferred positively (language facilitation), while differences cause a nonproductive transfer (language interference). Framework for Explaining L1 Transfer Language Trans fer The L1 system is used for both comprehension and production. The interlanguage system is also used in comprehending and receiving messages. The L1 system is used in hypothesis construction responsible for interlanguage development. Comprehensible input serves as a major source of information for hypothesis construction. L2 output may be used for hypothesis construction. Slide 32: Language learners rely on their first language to produce language and to comprehend it. Hypotheses construction of language comes when learners manipulate and test language forms to further their interlanguage, the stages of development between L1 and L2. The second language output helps the learner test hypotheses of how language works and helps them construct new ones. Teachers provide comprehensible input in order to help learners acquire information for hypotheses construction. Slide 33: Language transfer is a cognitive process which involves the strategic use of the first language in learning the second language. The flexible thinking that occurs in the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind is representative of the interconnectedness between the two languages. Bi-cognitive thinking occurs spontaneously and with great ease. Learners think in their first language, transfer that thinking into the second language and then produce the utterances that meet the communication situation. There is a distinction between transfer experienced for communication purposes and transfer experienced for second language learning. First language transfer helps the learner receive and produce messages for communication purposes. Transfer in learning situations happens when the learner uses the first language to formulate hypotheses about second language rules. Language Language Transfer Trans fer Where the two languages were identical, learning could take place through positive transfer to the native-language pattern. Where the two languages were different, learning difficulty arose and errors occurred resulting from negative transfer. Chomsky (1959) set in motion a re-evaluation of many of the behaviorists claims. This re-evaluation included area such as: the dangers of extrapolating from laboratory studies of animal behavior to the language behavior of humans were pointed out; 2. the terms stimulus and response were exposed as vacuous where language behavior was concerned; 3. nalogy could not account for the language userÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to generate totally novel utterances; and 4. studies of children acquiring their L1 showed that parents rarely corrected their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s linguistic errors, thus casting doubt on the importance of reinforcement in language learning. All this led to the reconsideration of the role of L1 in L2 learning. 1. Slide 34: When language feat ures in the two languages are similar, positive transfer from the first language to the second language occurs. When language features in the two languages are different, learning difficulties and errors happen. This transfer process made it evident to researchers that the native language definitely plays a major role in second language acquisition. The Nature of the Interlanguage Continuum Cognitive theories of interlanguage claim that with the assistance of learning strategies, learners build mental grammars of the second language. Learners draw on the rules they have constructed to interpret and produce utterances. LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s utterances are only erroneous with reference to the target language norms, not to the norms of their own grammars. The interlanguage continuum consists of a series of overlapping grammars. Each share some rules with the previously constructed grammar, but also contains some new or revised rules. A rule has the status of a hypothesis. Slide 35: The implication of the interlanguage continuum for teachers is that with assistance from learning strategies, learners are able to build mental grammars (rules) of the second language. The continuum represents different interlanguage stages (overlapping grammars) that the learners go through to use the rules they have learned to interpret and produce speech. Rules are classified hypotheses because the learner tests certain language rules in his/her development. SelinkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Interlanguage Theory SelinkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Interlanguage Theory maintains the separateness of a second language learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s system and gives the system a structurally intermediate status between the native and target languages. According to Selinker, second language learners are producing their own self-contained linguistic system. The system is not a native language or target language system, rather it falls between the two. Stages of Interlanguage Development include: 1) random errors (presystematic); 2) experimentation and inaccurate guessing; 3) emergent-growing in consistency in linguistic production; 4) backsliding-appears to have grasped but later regressed and unable to correct errors; 5) systematic stage-ability to correct errors on their own; rules may not be well-formed but display more internal self-consistency; 6) stabilization-few errors are made, have mastered the system to the point of fluency; and 7) intralingual-inconsistencies within the target language; Global errors-affect meaning;local errors-close similarities in word form (i. . spelling). Interlanguage Continuum Interlanguage Stages L1 L2 ______/____/______/____/_______/_____/___/_____/_____/______ Basilang Mesolang Acrolang Slide 36: Each of the stages of the interlanguage continuum represents each grammar that the learner builds which represents more complexity as he/she moves on the continuum. Second language learners begin in t heir first language and as teachers provide the formal and informal second language instruction, learners move forward in their development. When learners encounter difficulties in any of their interlanguage stages, they can fossilize (learning stops at some given point) or they may experience backsliding (regression). The continuum can be related to language learner categories used for identifying bilingual/ESL students. Basilang is equivalent to the beginner; mesolang is the category of an intermediate learner; and acrolang is the category for the advanced learner. Slide 37: The identification of errors that language learners make is important in order to understand the source of errors and the corrective measures teachers can offer. Errors happen when learners lack knowledge of second language rules, while mistakes occur when learners are unable to perform their competence (underlying knowledge that is non-observable). Overt errors are deviations in form and covert errors are those that are well-formed but do not communicate what the learner intended. Learner Errors Error Analysis is used for examining errors as a way of investigating learning processes. Much of the early work on learner errors focused on the extent to which L2 acquisition was the result of L1 transfer or creative construction (construction of unique rules similar to those which children form in the course of acquiring the native language). The presence of errors that mirrored L1 structures was taken as evidence of transfer (interlingual), while those errors similar to those observed in L1 acquisition were indicative of creative construction (intralingual). The study of learner errors showed that although many errors were caused by transferring L1 habits, many more were not. It was found that learners went through stages of acquisition and the nature of errors varied according to their level of development. Error analysis could not show when learners resorted to avoidance and it ignored what learners could do correctly. Slide 38: For teachers of English language learners, it is important to understand the role of errors in second language learning. Error analysis is important because it gives us the opportunity to examine learner errors and determine if errors are a consequence of first language interference or not. Implications for teachers come in planning instruction that addresses patterns in errors made by students experiencing language interference, grouping practices to target the identified errors, and instructional methodologies and strategies for helping learners overcome some of their errors. Slide 39: Errors made by a language learner can give teachers insight as to how much knowledge the learner has in the second language. They are a means of diagnosing progress or lack of progress in second language development. Errors are to be seen as part of a process of second language acquisition not just as the result of imperfect learning. Slide 40: Errors are systematic and will occur until the language learner recognizes them and corrects them. If communication is clear, even when learners produce errors such as Ã¢â¬Å"no wantÃ¢â¬ then the error is in the language structure and not in the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s system (interlanguage). Slide 41: Contrastive analysis helps teachers understand potential errors language learners make. This understanding will allow teachers to identify what needs to be learned and what is already in the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s system. What needs to be learned will be the focus of instruction and what is already learned will be the knowledge the learner brings to the learning situations. The pedagogical materials that resulted from contrastive analysis were based on the claim that language is a habit; language learning involves the establishment of a new set of habits; the native language interferes with the reception and production of a second language; and accounting for errors involves considering differences between the first and the second languages. The greater the differences the more errors will occur; and difficulty and ease in learning a second language are determined by differences and similarities between the two languages in contrast. Slide 42: Thomas and Collier (1997), proposed the Prism Model of Language Acquisition for School. This model includes first and second language cognitive development, academic development, language development as well as social and cultural processes. Slide 43: The cognitive development component is a subconscious process that is developmental. Thought processes are built through interactions. It is critical that cognitive development take place in the first language so that the foundation is strong and positive transfer of skills and concepts occurs. Slide 44: Academic knowledge, concepts and skills transfer from the first to the second language. In order to make the necessary instructional adjustments, teachers need to provide instruction in the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ first language and a strong English as a Second Language component during the instructional day in order to make academic content meaningful. The interruption of academic development in the first language will likely promote academic failure. A good balance of academic instruction (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) in the first language and vocabulary and oral language development (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) through ESL will facilitate language transfer and transition when the learner is ready. According to research, it takes a language learner from 5-7 years to reach academic proficiency in the second language. It takes from 2-3 years to acquire BICS. Therefore, teaching BICS in the two languages and having a strong ESL program are essential if language learners are to be ready for transitioning from the first to the second language. Slide 45: Language development includes Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) which are acquired subconsciously as well as the innate ability learners bring with them to the academic setting (CALP). In order to assure both cognitive and academic success in learning a second language, the learner must be taught in his/her first language to a high cognitive level so that the learner can develop the necessary competence and performance in the second language. Slide 46: Second language learners go through everyday experiences which impact the acquisition of the second language. The home-school connection is very important in order to help language learners respond to second language learning more effectively. The sociocultural support that language learners need must be evident at home, at school, in the community and in society at large. The instructional environment can either create social unity, linguistic and ethnic respect, and value for bilingualism or it may promote a psychological distance between two groups, cultures and languages. Slide 47: In conclusion, teachers working with second language learners must consider the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ linguistic, cultural, and academic needs, as well as the levels of language proficiency. Teachers should encourage their students to experiment with language and not be afraid of making errors. Errors are part of the learning process just as error correction is part of the teaching process. Teachers should not ignore errors, but focusing too much on them can cause anxiety, fear and hamper learning.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Life is like a tale, it does not matter how long it is, it matters how good it is! Good morning respected Dignitaries amp; my dear friends. These words were famously said by the author of one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous book series, JK Rowling. Joanne Kathleen Rowling was born on the 31st of July at Yate England. Born to Peter and Anne Rowling, she had a fixed ambition from a very young age, to write. JK Rowling was on a train trip when an idea of a young boy attending a wizarding school came to her mind. Harry PotterÃ is now a global brand worth an estimated $15Ã billion,Ã and the last fourÃ Harry PotterÃ books have consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history. The seriesÃ have been translated, in whole or in part, into 65 languages. TheÃ Harry PotterÃ books have also gained recognition for sparking an interest in reading among the young at a time when children were thought to be abandoning books for computers and television. We will write a custom essay sample on Life Is a Tale of Magic or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Every human has a spark in them but it needs to be lit by someone. My seed of fire was definitely lit By JK Rowling. In her Harvard speech of 2008 she quoted Ã¢â¬Å"Failure meant a stripping away of the inessential. I stopped pretending to myself that I was anything other than what I was, and began to direct all my energy to finishing the only work that mattered to me. Had I really succeeded at anything else, I might never have found the determination to succeed in the one area where I truly belonged. I was set free, because my greatest fear had been realized, and I was still alive, and I still had a daughter whom I adored, and I had an old typewriter, and a big idea. And so rock bottom became a solid foundation on which I rebuilt my life. Ã¢â¬ J. K Rowling opened the eyes of many young readers, including myself. She showed the world how momentous well-chosen words can be, and has inspired me, a hopeful writer, to keep on being hopeful. I believe J. K Rowling is the embodiment of hope; a lit candle in the darkness. She proved what the power of determination can do, and at the same time, led me to understand the magic of literature. In fact, Joanne was a turning point for many; her books opened up that universe of print, where one can immerse themselves in worlds so unlike their own and discover the many mysteries unique to it as one explores the delightful details around them. Time seems to stop in its place and allow readers to delve into all there is to know about their surroundings.